Shockingly Effective.

first_imgA University of Georgia scientist has found an environmentallyfriendly product nurserymen can use to kill plant diseases.What is it?Water.But this fungus-killing water doesn’t flow from just any faucet.It’s electrolyzed water created by a machine that combines water,electricity and a salt solution that enhances the water’s properties.The water-and-salt solution flows through a machine calledan electrolyzed oxidizing water unit. The result is two typesof water: one very acidic and one highly alkaline.”I’ve tried the acidic electrolyzed water on everythingfrom begonias to geraniums,” said James Buck, a plant pathologistworking in the UGA College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences.”It’s very safe for the plants. And it kills fungi in a matterof seconds.”Hundredsof ornamental plants are grown in nurseries across the Southeast.And nurserymen constantly fight to control diseases that reducetheir plant yields.”Typically, in just one year, 10 percent of the crop willbe lost to plant diseases,” Buck said.To test the effectiveness of the electrolyzed water, Buck selectedtwo diseases to work with: powdery mildew and gray mold.”In a greenhouse operation, you’re going to have thesetwo diseases,” Buck said. “They’re foliar fungi thatattack the leaves and flowers of plants.”Buck applied the electrolyzed water as a spray and found itkilled fungi much faster than traditional fungicides.”We’re not trying to replace fungicides,” he said.”But we are looking for alternatives and additional toolsfor growers to use. On top of its effectiveness, the electrolyzedwater is also environmentally friendly.”The water kills bacteria and fungi almost immediately. Butit loses its properties over time. “That’s another reasonit would be a popular choice,” he said.Buck expanded his tests to include 25 fungi. And each timethe electrolyzed water killed the fungus in “usually 10 to30 seconds.”Over the next two years, he plans to broaden his research intoelectrolyzed water’s use as a contact fungicide. He’ll do so withthe help of a $123,000 Pest Management Alternatives grant fromthe U.S. Department of Agriculture.He now plans to find out how much and how often the water shouldbe sprayed, which ornamentals it works best on and how its costcompares to that of traditional fungicides.Buck’s research may lead to EO water replacing or reducingthe use of chemical fungicides in commercial greenhouses.”The electrolyzed oxidizing water unit won’t be an affordableoption for mom-and-pop nurseries,” he said. “But largenursery operators should find the cost well worth the benefit.”For the past four years, CAES food scientists have been usingthe electrolyzed water to kill bacteria on food and sanitize surfacesand equipment used in food preparation.”We’re focusing on finding safe, effective, economicaland practical means of controlling food-borne pathogens as foodmoves from the farm, through postharvest operations and onto thetable at home,” said Yen-Con Hung, a CAES food scientist.”EO water has many applications,” he said, “fromnonthermal food washing and sanitization to water treatment andgeneral household cleaning applications.”Hung has tested electrolyzed water’s effectiveness for controllingfood-borne pathogens on plastic kitchen cutting boards, freshpoultry and lettuce.”This water drastically cuts down the levels of Salmonellaand Campylobacter on chicken carcasses,” Hung said. “Itwould be a very effective addition to chicken processing plants.”He has found the water effective, too, at removing pathogenson foods like lettuce that can’t be heated to kill bacteria.last_img read more

LR: Zero Emission Ships’ Main Challenge Lies in Fuel Storage

first_imgThe shipping sector recently took a giant leap toward decarbonisation as the International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) member states agreed on the requirement which would see the industry reduce its emissions by at least 50 pct by 2050 compared to 2008.The move, considered as a potentially game-changing development, envisages at least halving the shipping sector’s greenhouse gas emissions over the period, however, without a clear plan of action, many questions have arisen as to how this would be accomplished.Katharine Palmer, Global Sustainability Manager, Marine & Offshore, Lloyd’s Register, in an interview with World Maritime News said that in order to meet the aim the penetration of zero emission fuels is needed to start around 2030.“The analysis we have done is showing that internal combustion solutions (with zero emission fuels) may be viable ways to meet zero emissions.”Katharine Palmer, Global Sustainability Manager, Marine & Offshore, Lloyd’s RegisterFrom the technological point of view, designing and constructing zero emissions ships would not experience a significant change in the machinery, according to Palmer, however the main challenge with zero emission vessels (ZEVs) would be the fuel storage.“For example, designing and building ammonia or hydrogen storage for fuel, may not require significant modification.”There are already a range of innovative technologies being piloted and deployed in niche sectors or domestic shipping for example CMB’s Hydroville, which is the first LR classed vessel to use hydrogen to power a diesel engine.Commenting on the slow development of already introduced green vessel designs, Palmer said that there is a mix of public and private investors exposed to climate risk.“We would not see at present any reason why the shipping sector is different to any other sector which needs to decarbonise. And therefore, investors and financiers have a significant role to play as their concern is having assets which are resilient to carbon risk and zero emission vessels clearly address this.”Regarding the potential alternatives which are likely to drive the shipping sector’s decarbonisation, Palmer said that the industry “has seen major transitions in the past from sail to steam to the internal combustion engine, but it is hard to predict the future and we expect to see a diverse range of zero-carbon technologies / fuels deployed across the world’s fleet.”She explained that Lloyd’s Register is analysing the competitiveness of different solutions and how carbon pricing would influence this, adding that they “will continue to explore the relative commercial viability as further clarity arises from the IMO about likely policy mechanisms.”Additionally, the cost of decarbonisation is closely linked to the cost of zero emission fuels and although there is a lot of work going on in the shipping sector “we can leverage the wider economy’s efforts to decarbonise.”As the industry slowly moves to the transition to zero emission vessels (ZEVs), Palmer said that the key is to be able to emulate logistics of today. Therefore the main area of technology development is storage, so not to reduce cargo carrying capacity or any other changes to the operating profile such as more frequent bunkering.In conclusion, Palmer explained that all stakeholders in the value chain have a role to play, “as we look at how we can produce the fuels, develop the technology for onboard deployment and meet trade demands.”World Maritime News Staff; Image Courtesy: Lloyd’s Registerlast_img read more