Some Exoplanets May Be Exostars

first_imgA brown dwarf was measured with more precision, and was found to be more massive than expected.  Robert Roy Britt in Space.com says this may call into question some of the discoveries of bodies orbiting other stars that were assumed to be planets.  I. Neill Reid,1 writing in Nature where the measurement was announced,2 explained the implications:Clearly, this is only one datum point, for one particular age and one particular mass.  Nonetheless, there are wide potential ramifications.  If this is a fair reflection of the theoretical models, then analyses of the luminosity distribution of low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in young clusters may be systematically underestimating their masses.  In consequence, the turnover in the mass function would be exaggerated (that is, there would be more brown dwarfs than currently estimated), but a lower-mass cut-off might lie at higher masses, because the supposed objects of 1-2 Jupiter masses might in fact exceed 15�20 Jupiter masses (0.015�0.02 solar masses).   (Emphasis added in all quotes.)See also the report on EurekAlert.1I. Neill Reid, “Astronomy: Weighing the baby,” Nature 433, 207 – 208 (20 January 2005); doi:10.1038/433207a.2Close et al., “A dynamical calibration of the mass-luminosity relation at very low stellar masses and young ages,” Nature 433, 286 – 289 (20 January 2005); doi:10.1038/nature03225.There could well be planets around other stars, but it’s one thing to find an exoplanet.  It’s another thing to find a privileged exoplanet.(Visited 13 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

10″14″16″18″20″22″ 110g-160g Hair Extensions Blonde – Thin and ratty at the ends :( but not bad quality aside from that

first_imgSlender and ratty at the finishes 🙁 but not negative top quality aside from that. These are fantastic nonetheless if you have thick hair i would opt for distinctive extensions, these are not double drawn and regardless of the description indicating they do not slender out at the ends, they absolutely do. The finishes of all the wefts put alongside one another likely are not even as thick as the major of a 2 clip weft, this is a shame as other than that these are rather excellent extensions, i acquired mine in #60 platinum blonde which when it arrived i was a minimal let down by how golden they were being instead than silvery platinum, even so just a person clean with some touch of silver shampoo got them to a a wonderful ashy silvery blonde. I then proceeded to dye them turquoise with la riche instructions to match them to my personal hair, they have absorbed the dye perfectly and evenly so the hair is of excellent good quality even though the finishes are nevertheless skinny and ratty, these would be better for all those who want extra thickness in their hair than length, but for the rate i’m pretty joyful with them as ordinarily this total of human hair would charge a great deal extra. I will update this assessment in a month once i have worn them a lot more and used my straighteners and curlers on them and see how they maintain up, but personally i would not invest in these once again just due to the fact of how a lot they slender out at the close.Awesome hair im so impressed ideal match much too 1 delighted. Incredible hair im so impressed fantastic match as well a single pleased lady thank you. Will definitely be buying yet again in the long run.Features of 10″14″16″18″20″22″ 110g-160g Hair Extensions Blonde – Grade 7A – Clip In Remy Human Hair Full Head Double Wefts 8pcs 18Clips (16″-130g, #60 Platinum Blonde)Extension Hair Type: 100% Remy Human Hair, Top AAAAAAA, soft and silky, tangle free8 Piece 18 Clips: – These extensions can be clipped-in or out in minutes and are practically invisible, hygienic, reusable, and do not give any kind of allergy o harm to your natural hair, easy to put on and take off when you want.Usage: Can be curled, straightened, tonged, washed; Hair Life: 3-12 Months (depending on care and usage)To stretch the hair of the entire head,usually we need 100g-160g of hair, Our human hair extension is of standard proportion, which is similar with natural hair. Just a set, you could get a full volume.Double Wefts: extra-thick and attractive, they will give you a full and stylish look in seconds, two wefts sewn together leading to higher density of hair extension when most of the sellers offer standard weft which is much thin.My close friend truly loves these, and has not stopped wearing. My friend actually loves these,and has not stopped carrying them. They arrived earlier than envisioned to.I have obtained hair extensions from areas just before and these are by considerably the very best. Would a hundred% propose and invest in all over again. They arrived on time, i have purchased hair extensions from areas prior to and these are by far the greatest. Would 100% suggest and obtain again.Quickly supply and wonderful color match.I have obtained hair extensions from areas just before and these are by considerably the very best. Would a hundred% propose and invest in all over again. They arrived on time, i have purchased hair extensions from areas prior to and these are by far the greatest. Would 100% suggest and obtain again.Great quality and price for money.Really delighted amazing quality rapid service. Matched up hair perfectly even for the to start with time. Obtaining additional upcoming week many thanks x.I usually need two bins of extensions, but with this i wanted just a person. Purchased 18′ platinum blonde. Came following day supply as for each amazon prime. Effectively packaged, no harm for the duration of transit. Color as advertised, extra hair than i was anticipating. No obvious challenges with hair. Has been straightened/curled with relieve. Lovely hair, would get yet again.Buy for a longer period than you believe you need to have and 2 packs if your introducing length to thick hair. I purchased these as i am hoping to grow my hair. I’d a short while ago had keratin bonded russian hair extensions taken out and wished a thing a little little bit more cost-effective. These would be fine if you have pretty skinny hair. My hair is thick and it is really seriously challenging to blend in. I almost certainly have to have 2 packs to match the thickness of my keratin bonded ones. Also i requested 18in but dropped several inches cutting the wispy finishes into a much better model and extra blunt finishes. The color was great and the hair is smooth and silky. My assistance woudl be get two-4inches longer than you assume you want and two packs if you have thick hair and you want to include length. They would be fantastic just to include additional volume.Accurately what i expected:) brill.Awesome hair im so impressed ideal match much too 1 delighted. Incredible hair im so impressed fantastic match as well a single pleased lady thank you. Will definitely be buying yet again in the long run.I appreciate these i cut my hair off to a pixie a yr in the past now and i acquired to that awful phase ended up my hair was all diffrent lengths i was concerned about getting extensions as i thought my hair wouldnt blend but these are fab superior thickness tremendous smooth and arrived the upcoming working day. . I ordered two a lot for thickness at the bottom as i have no duration but if you just want quantity a person established is plenty of.These hair extensions are the good excellent. The similar good quality as you would get from hair extension outlets. A different bonus is they previously have the clips sewn on. Which if you acquired from the store you would pay one more £40 on top rated just for some with clips. The only issue i can complain about is they are extremely slender. As you can see in the picture i have uploaded they are extremely slim. I was hoping they would be a very little thicker so if you your hair is on the thick aspect i would say to get two packs. Which is what i will do in the long term.Obtained these two days immediately after purchased so shipping and delivery was fantastic. I put on a large amount of extensions and have tried lots of unique manufacturers and forms. I do commonly like to buy my hair from a store so i can truly feel it and make sure it truly is great and thick, and it typically costs me close to £120. I have shoulder duration hair and it is really very slim, so 1 pack of these the place enough for me. The hair is beautiful and thick, and super smooth. I’ve curled it, straightened it, crimped it and they are nonetheless in ideal issue. As a standard hair purchaser and the most difficult consumer to remember to, these are a brilliant invest in.I was a bit fearful about obtaining these cause of reading some of the testimonials but i certainly enjoy these. I’ve really thick hair n these the place perfect i only have to have a single established to do it. And when i say my hairs thick i suggest suitable thick. When washing the extensions n crying em they came out the exact same conquer established ive ever acquired.These are the best extensions at any time. Its my 5th time buying them. I propose to get two packs if your hair is thick mainly because itll give you a beautiful head of hair.I utilized all the wefts in each packs apart from for the solitary wefts. I like these extensions sooooooo significantly i am hardly ever getting any other extensions other then these. I not too long ago highlighted my hair a caramel colour and they go great with my hair.These are the best extensions at any time. Its my 5th time buying them. I propose to get two packs if your hair is thick mainly because itll give you a beautiful head of hair.I utilized all the wefts in each packs apart from for the solitary wefts. I like these extensions sooooooo significantly i am hardly ever getting any other extensions other then these. I not too long ago highlighted my hair a caramel colour and they go great with my hair.This was truthfully the greatest matter i have at any time acquired, came in early and it can be so thick. I am hoping to acquire yet another established quickly. And i toned it to silver and it arrived out terrific.I’m definietly recommending these.Accurately what i expected:) brill. Arrived rapid and very great. Color matched my hair effectively and only have to have. Arrived swift and extremely great. Colour matched my hair effectively and only need to have the one set with my hair becoming thick.Best colour match to my very own hair. Just supplied it a ‘quick try’, and i are not able to quit stroking and taking part in with my new hair ? will definatley reorder yet again in the long run ??.Extremely lovely hair inexpensive and cheerful x.I’m delighted with them and I won’t be ordering extensions from I have purchased hair extensions from places before and these are by far the best. Would 100% recommend and buy againI usually need 2 boxes of extensions, but with this I needed just onelast_img read more

Henry Gifford Continues His Case Against LEED

first_imgSometimes it seems as if debates about how best to increase the energy efficiency of buildings – and about the relative importance of energy efficiency in green building – are bound to outlive the buildings themselves. That’s not necessarily a bad thing, of course, for people who want to see green building flourish while building science and building materials improve.One of the developments sparking long and fevered discussion on these subjects is the lawsuit filed against the U.S. Green Building Council by Henry Gifford, an occasional GBA contributor and the owner of Gifford Fuel Saving consultancy. Gifford’s suit, originally filed in October as a class-action, was amended in February to focus on claims of false advertising, deceptive practices, and illegal monopolization, while its original common law, racketeering, and class-action components were dropped. Three plaintiffs also were added to the complaint. Alleging that USGBC misrepresented the performance of LEED certified buildings and altered study results to support its performance claims, Gifford’s suit seeks an injunction against USGBC and monetary damages for lost sales and profits.USGBC answersUSGBC responded in April with a motion to dismiss the amended suit, claiming that the plaintiffs lack standing (i.e. they weren’t among the people actually deceived by USGBC’s building-performance claims) and can’t prove that they were harmed by the organization’s allegedly illegal conduct. USGBC’s argument generally holds up, argues Shari Shapiro, a LEED Accredited Professional and an attorney specializing in green building law, renewable energy, and sustainable buildings. But in one of a series of posts about the suit on her Green Building Law blog, Shapiro also notes that USGBC’s motion to dismiss also claims that the group’s marketing targets building industry and real estate professionals. That claim, she says, is contradicted by the LEED for Homes online scoring tool, announced in the spring, which does indeed market LEED for Homes certification directly to consumers.“Making factually unsupported arguments may weaken the punch of the USGBC’s clearer grounds for dismissal,” she writes, “and provide a toehold for the Plaintiffs to plant seeds of doubt about the rest of the USGBC’s arguments.”Flawed comparisions?That’s some of the legal background to the drama. A broader perspective on the discussions it has precipitated – and a reminder of the durable nature of the debate about energy efficiency, LEED certification, and green building practices – is offered in an article published June 13 by Miller-McCune.com, a news site that specializes in nonpartisan coverage of social concerns.The story points out that the assertions in the suit hinge in large part on Gifford’s analysis of a 2008 study comparing predicted energy use in certified buildings with actual energy use, and with a national average for existing buildings. Conducted by USGBC and the New Buildings Institute, the study drew on data from the Department of Energy’s Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey of 2007. NBI concluded from the data that LEED buildings are, on average, 25% to 30% more efficient than the national average. By contrast, Gifford’s analysis of the information concluded that LEED buildings are, on average, 29% less efficient.Gifford complained that the study erred by examining performance data only from 121 LEED-certified buildings with willing operators, the Miller-McCune story notes. Also of concern to Gifford is that the study compares data from LEED-certified buildings to data from a range of existing buildings rather than those built after USGBC got rolling in 2000.A path to LEED refinement?Gifford’s criticism has prompted plenty of discussion on building sites, including GBA and BuildingGreen.com, whose editorial director, Tristan Roberts, pointed out to Miller-McCune that many older buildings, particularly those built before 1960, are more efficient than newer ones.In at least one case, Gifford’s complaints prompted yet another analysis of the NBI study. John Scofield, a physicist at Oberlin College, also concluded that LEED-certified commercial buildings are not necessarily more energy efficient than conventional buildings, although his conclusion is based on the fact that LEED tracks site energy (via utility bills), rather than source energy (the on- and offsite energy costs), as a principal measure of building efficiency. Another flaw in LEED, Scofield says, is that had been awarding points for energy efficiency based on projected energy use rather than relying entirely on measurements of the building’s performance once construction was complete.USGBC, since 2009, has in fact moved to implement verification of performance, even though the performance data is not, at this point, being released to the public. In any case, the upshot of the challenges and analyses is that they’ll likely lead to productive changes in the long run, and green building will continue to become a bigger part of the national conversation.last_img read more

Paving Roads With Recycled Plastic

first_imgA Scottish startup company has developed a method for supplementing conventional bitumen asphalt with pellets of recycled plastic, producing a stronger and more durable pavement.MacRebur describes MR6 as a high-performance asphalt binder additive that reduces the amount of bitumen needed to make asphalt, simultaneously reducing the amount of oil going into pavement and finding a use for the millions of pounds of waste plastic that now go into landfills every year.According to the company, pavement made with the material has higher tensile strength than conventional asphalt, better cohesion and adhesion and much better resistance to rutting and cracking. As a result, roads last longer and cost less to maintain.The company’s Facebook page features a number of photos of paving projects, but it’s not clear how much of the asphalt has actually been turned into roads. MacRebur says it’s target market are the 275 asphalt plants in the UK and nearly 5,000 across Europe. It already has agreements in place with several smaller UK asphalt producers.“MR6 can be added into every ton of asphalt produced without any modifications being required by the asphalt manufacturing plants,” the company website says. “MR6 allows for less bitumen to be added to their mix, giving the manufacturer instant increased profits from all current and future business.”MacRebur isn’t the only company using plastic in road mix. Inhabitat reports that the city of Vancouver is paving its streets with asphalt containing a binder made from recycled plastic. The mix is said to flow at lower temperatures than conventional asphalt and doesn’t look any different than ordinary pavement. The process adds 1% to 3% in costs, but could get cheaper as its use becomes more widespread.And Motortrend reports that a Dutch company is developing a way of producing hollow-core road sections from recycled plastics. The material lasts three times as long as conventional pavement, VolkerWessels says.last_img read more